Early Muslim & Mughal Heritage of Pakistan is a treasure-house of Muslim art and architecture. Lahore, the cultural capital of Pakistan, is situated along the bank of River Ravi . The city has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties like Ghaznavids (1021-1186 AD), Ghoris (1186-1202 AD) and Slaves (1206-1524 AD) before arrival of the Mughals. The city was conquered by Babur of Ferghana (situated in Uzbekistan), the founder of the Mughal dynasty (1524-1764 AD). All the important monuments like the Royal Fort, Badshahi Mosque, Wazir Khan’s Mosque and Tombs of Empror Jehangir, Asif Khan, Queen Noor Jehan and the Shalimar Gardens, Hiran Minar etc., were constructed during this period. On the other hand, the shrines, mosques and forts located in and around Multan and Bahawalpur are the master pieces of the early Muslim architecture. Some important buildings are; Forts at Multan and Derawar (Bahawalpur), shrines of Shaikh Bahauddin Zakaria, Shah Rukan-e-Alam, Hazrat Shams Tabrez at Multan and Tomb of Bibi Jiwandi at Uchh Sharif near Bahawalpur. The tombs at Chaukundi, 27 km out of Karachi, the remains at Banbhore (64 km from Karachi) and the largest necropolis of the world with a million graves scattered over an area of 10 sq. km on Makli Hills near Thatta together with the Shahjehan Mosque of Thatta, are exquisite specimens of Muslim architecture, with stone carving and glazed tile decorations.